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  • デニム用語集P-Z

    • P
    • pencil jeans
    • See also "slim fit" jeans.
    • piece dyed
    • See under "gament dyed".
    • pigment dyes
    • A pigment is a substance used to change the color of a material. What differentiates a pigment as a colorant is the inability of the pigments to dissolve in common solvents (such as water) and in the surface to be colored, for which in the case of the pigments is called "dispersion". Therefore pigment dyes are those that do not have an affinity for fibre and must therefore be held to the fabric with resins. They are available in almost any colour and are used largely in the denim industry. Fabric dyers who want to create fabrics that fade more easily extensively use pigment dyes and, more in general, natural dyes. The classification of the pigments is based on their nature and origin, to which the pigments can be divided principally into: inorganic and organic, natural and synthetic. In nature, inorganic pigments are found in rocks and minerals and often require extensive work to be purified; in biology, pigment is any colored material present in plant and animal cells.
    • pima cotton
    • Pima cotton refers to a type of cotton having long fibres. It is considered very high quality cotton, along with Zibabwean and Egyptian cotton.
    • plain weave
    • Plain weave is the most common type of waeave, in which the weft passes under and over the warp in alternating cycles.
    • ply
    • Ply refers to the number of threads in a yarn. Most of yarns are single ply unless twisted with another yarn. In the denim industry, plied yarns are used to make stronger fabrics. The yarns can be twisted several times, but most of denim is two or three ply. Blue jeans manufactured by using these materials are very durable.
    • pocket stitching
    • Pocket stitching is a peculiar characteristic of blue jeans. Back pockets of jeans are often stitched in an ornamental way that clearly identifies and differentiates one brand from the others.
    • polycore denim
    • Polycore is a type of denim fabric, which is made by combinig cotton and polyester together. Polycore denim is a very strong fabric. It is very used for the production vintage replica jeans because of its resistance to washing treatments.
    • pre-shrunk
    • Pre shrunk refers to an industrial operation in which the denim fabric has been subjected to a shrinking process in order to prevent or reduce contraction when the blue blue jeans, or any other denim garment, is laundered or washed.
    • pumice stone
    • Pumice stone refers to a lightweight, tough and rough volcanic stone, created when incandescent rocks are ejected due to the pressure. Pumice stone is commonly is mainly pale in colour. As pumice stone is highly abrasive, it is used for stone washing blue jeans and denim garments. Stone washing with pumice discolours and softens denim during the laundry process.
    • Q
    • quality control
    • Quality control refers to inspection operations followed by the manufacturer to ensure that the product has quality standards of excellence. Each pair of blue jeans, along with every other denim garment, undergoes to a number of quaility checks after every single manufacturing operation.
    • R
    • rag-weave
    • Rag weave is the typical weaving method adopted for manufacturing the majority of denim fabrics. Rag weave is characterized by a diagonal incline, which can be easily recognized on the warp of every blue jean.
    • rail-tracks
    • Rail-tracks is the term used to describe the parallel fade along the outer seam of a denim pant, which resembles a railroad tracks.
    • raw denim
    • Raw denim refers to unwashed denim. It is also known as "dry" denim. Garments produced by using raw denim fabric have not undergone any washing, rupture or aging procedure. Raw denim is pretty rigid and tends to shrink one or two sizes after the first washing.
    • recycled denim
    • Denim can be easily recycled. The recycling process is simple and requires no chemical products, having no impacts on the environment. The weaving process of recycled denim is identical to the weaving process of new denim fabrics.
    • red cast denim
    • Red cast is a special variety of denim characterized by a reddish colour, which is visible on the surface of the unwashed blue jeans.
    • red line
    • Red line refers to a vintage type of selvage. In the old times, it was synonymous of highest standard of quality and it is still reputed the excellence of selvage by denim purists and jeans collectors. Red line blue jeans were often produced under the Big E red tab, in order to be immediately recognized.
    • right-hand twill
    • Right hand twill refers to a type of weaving twill characterized by a diagonal grooves, which produces a diagonal line which runs from the top left hand corner of the denim towards the bottom right hand. This was standard practice in denim production; single yarn warps were woven right-hand, double yarn warps were woven left hand. Right hand twill is the most common in denim manufacturing and high quality denim is often right-hand twill.
    • rigid denim
    • See under "Raw denim".
    • ring dyeing
    • Ring dyeing refers to a peculiar characteristic unique to natural indigo dye, in which only the outer surface of the fibres in the yarn is dyed with colour, while the inner core remains white. This is due to the fact that the pure indigo pigment doesn't penetrate inside the yarn. Because of this reason, Japanese indigo dyed denim release its colour easily creating different hues of blue. Natural indigo dyed blue jeans fade with wear in a unique way and each piece has its own tonality.
    • ring-ring denim
    • Ring-ring, or double ring-spun denim, refers to the traditionally made denim, which uses ring-spun yarn for both warp and weft. This is the authentic way to produce denim fabric. Ring-ring denim has an irregular aspect and hand, which have to be considered valuable. It's possible to combine a ring-spun warp with an open-end weft, in order to obtain a fabric with the appearence and strength of the ring-ring denim at lower cost.
    • ring-spun denim
    • Ring spun denim uses spun yarns for only the warp, while ring-ring denim uses ring-spun yarns for both the weft and the warp. This is a spinning process in which the individual fibers are fed onto the end of the yarn while it is in the 'twisting' stage, by means of a ring, a ring traveller and a bobbin that rotates at high speed. The ring-spun yarn creates typical surface characteristics in the fabric, including unevenness, which confers jeans an irregular traditional vintage appearence. Denim fabrics obtained by ring-spun yarns are sturdy and have soft feel. Ring spun yarns were used in denim as a method of production until the late 1970s, but because of its costs and time consuming, were later replaced by cheaper, open-end yarns.
    • rinse
    • Rinse is the term that refers to the industrial operation of "rinsing" denim, which is applied to each individual garment, regardless of the type of wash applied to each single jean or jacket. Rinse is necessary to remove the soap and any other substances used for the discoloration and aging of the jeans. In the case of raw denim, the jean does not undergo any treatment in the washing if not the operation of rinsing and therefore maintains the typical dark blue color, the roughness and all other properties of dry denim. Rinse stabilizes the denim fabric preventing shrinking
    • rise
    • The distance between the waist and the crotch determines the "rise" of any jeans and pants, which may vary from high to low (or super-low) depending on its length. Rise is very important because it determines where your jeans sit on your waist. Normal rise of jeans is also known as "regular" rise or "mid" rise. Regular rise is mostly adopted for manufacturing chinos, khakis and other trousers.
    • river washing
    • River washing is a laundry procedure, which uses a combination of pumice stones and cellulose enzymes to give denim ruined look and a soft hand. At first, the washing machine is loaded only with stones and fabric. Enzymes are introduced for the second cycle and they are left in the tumbler until the desired vintage look is achieved.
    • rivet
    • A metal accessory that is used for reinforcement of stress points of jeans and other workwear garments, as well as for non-functional ornamentation. A rivet is a permanent mechanical fastner. The rivet consists of two parts: the head and the tail. Rivets can be made of various metals as, for example, steel or copper.
    • rope dyeing
    • Rope dyening refers to a dyeing method in which the threads of denim yarn are twisted into a rope. The rope is dipped multiple times into a bath of natural indigo dye, always followed by exposure to air. The number of dives determines the ultimate shade of blue, ranging from light blue to extremely dark blue. Rope dyeing is considered the best possible method to dye indigo yarns. Rope dyeing denim fabrics are used to manufacture the most valuable indigo dyed jeans.
    • rope effect
    • Rope effect, also known as "roping" refers to a fading effect visible on the hem of jeans, where denim is discoloured diagonally because of the abrasion caused by projections of fabric placed on the hem, which resembles a rope. Rope effect can be best seen on vintage jeans, whose hem has been sewn with a chain-stitched machine. Technically, roping of chain-stitched hems should be considered a sewing defect, but denim purists and jeans collectors highly appreciate its peculiarity and unique characteristic of fading.
    • S
    • saddle stitch
    • In saddle stitching a super thick thread is used to manufacture the jeans, instead of a normal one, in order to create a sturdy garment with a vintage look.
    • salopette
    • See under "overall".
    • sand blasting
    • Sand blasting refers to a laundry process that is used to soften and discolour blue jeans. Sand blasting is performed before washing: jeans are blasted with sand guns in order to abrade them and to achieve a worn appearance. Sand blasting process was originally done by hand. Nowadays a sandblaster is used at most industrial laundry.
    • sanding
    • Sanding refers to a denim finishing process where jeans are sanded with real sandpaper to soften and discolour the surface.
    • sanforization
    • Sanforization is a pre-shrinking fabric process that stabilizes the denim fabric before it is cut. In fact, sanforization limits residual fabric shrinkage to less than 10%, while raw denim (whichis unsanforized) is likely to shrink up to 10% on the first wash and continue to shrink slightly up for several following washes. During the sanforization process, the fabric is inserted into a sanforizing machine and soaked with water or steam to cause shrinkage. It is subsequently stretched through a series of rubber cylindres and then rolled for storage. Sanforization process is named after its inventor, Sanford Lockwood Cluett, and was patented in 1930.
    • scouring
    • Scouring refers to the industrial process, which removes dirt and starch from denim fabrics.
    • sea island cotton
    • Along with Egyptian and Zimbabwean cotton, Sea Island is reputed one of the most valuable and fine quality of cotton available on the market. Sea Island cotton fibres are incredibly smooth and soft.
    • selvage/ selvedge/ self-edge
    • Selvedge, also named salvage or self-edge, refers to the vertical edge of a denim fabric. It is usually decorated with a coloured thread, known as 'Redline' or 'Aka-Mini', which colour varies according to the manufacturer. A selvage end prevents the edge of the denim from unravelling. Old 28 to 30 inch shuttle looms produce "authentic" denim where selvages are closed.
    • serge de nimes
    • A fabric named "serge de Nimes" was known in France in 1800. Serge is a common namen for twill fabrics made of wool and cotton. Nimes is a town located in the South of France, famous for its massive production of textiles, two centuries ago. It is tought that the name "denim" derives from "de Nimes". This belief remains unproven and it's likely we will never really be able to demonstrate it in any way.
    • shade batching
    • Shade batching is the term that refers to the process of selecting batches of denim into homogeneous shade lots to obtain consistent colour continuity in jeans making.
    • shrinkage
    • Shrinkage refers to a contraction of the length of the fibers of the fabric, caused by contact with water or steam. Before denim fabric is woven, the threads it's made of are treated with wax or resin to stiffen them and make them easier to weave. When dry, raw or unwashed denim is immersed in water for the first time, the fibres constrict and the denim shrinks.
    • shrink-to-fit
    • Raw denim, dry denim and unwashed denim can be "sanforized" (treated with a sanforizing process that lessens shrinkage) but all raw denim will shrink to some degree upon immersion in water and for subsequent washes. The hotter the water, the more the jeans will shrink. It's extremely important to buy raw denim garments and jeans a couple of size bigger, because of the shrinkage that would inevitably occur after washing. Authentic shrink-to-fit jeans, made of untreated and unwashed denim, use to be soaked before wear in order to soften the stiff fabric and shrink the denim. Nowadays, shrink-to fit jeans are still produced by specialized manufacturers and highly appreciated by the true denim fans.
    • shuttle
    • Shuttle is the term that indicates the device that carries the weft yarn across the loom in vintage shuttle looms. Authentic selvage denim can only be produced using a shuttle loom.
    • silhouette
    • Silhouette, also known as the 'fit', refers to the shape and design of a jean (for example flared, low rise, tapered, boyfriend, skinny, etc.)
    • singeing
    • Singeing is the final process of eliminating any loose fibre from finished jeans. Strays and peeling tissue are burnt off with a small, controlled flame.
    • sizing
    • Sizing is the industrial process of adding wax, starch, gelatine glue or any other protective coating to yarns before weaving, in order to improve their strength and also to achieve a uniform weave. Sizing can increase the weight of denim fabrics of almost one ounce. The opposite process of removing the coating is named "desizing".
    • skewing
    • As denim fabric shrinks more perpendicular to the twill line than along the latter, the twill line will cause the right angles that the denim is woven in to torque approximately 5° after washing. To compensate for this, preventing leg twisting caused by the shrinking process, denim cloth is skewed between three and seven percent in the opposite direction of the twill, in order to prevent the side seam from twisting to the front of the jean. Redline and Big-E selvedge jeans, along with authentic vintage denim garments, have one or both of the side seams twisted towards the front of the jean.
    • skinny jeans
    • The term refers to those jeans that are designed to adhere to the legs like a second skin, from which they are named. Skinny jeans are tight on the tighs and tapered towards the ankles. To ensure greater comfort and convenience, skinny jeans are made mainly in stretch denim. See also stretch denim.
    • slasher dyeing
    • Slasher dyeing, or sheet dyeing, is one of three main methods of dyeing indigo yarn, which combines dyeing and sizing into a single process. Slasher dyeing is a less expensive method than Rope Dyeing and Loop Dyeing. It is reputed a lower quality process because the dye is not uniform and blue colour tends to be uneven. Denim yarns are prepared by immersion in a chemical mordant and subsequently dipped repeatedly in vats containing the natural indigo dye. See also 'Loop Dyeing' and 'Rope Dyeing'.
    • slim fit
    • Slim fit pants and jackets have a narrow and tight fit. Slim fit jeans are tight around the thighs and end in a small opening. Contrary to the skinny jeans, slim fit are not necessarely tapered at the bottom of the leg. Slim fit jeans that have a straight lower leg are also named 'cigarette jeans', 'drainpipes', 'stovepipes' and 'pencil jeans'. Comfort denim or stretch denim is mostly used in manufacturing slim fit jeans to allow pants to have an extra slim fit.
    • slub
    • Slub refers to thick or heavy places in the yarn. Slubs and other inconsistencies are common in denim produced on vintage 28-inch shuttle looms. In fact, due to irregular spinning, the denim may be thicker in some parts than in others. Modern yarn spinning technology is able to engineer this vintage looking texture replica. In fact, slubs, which used to be seen as manufacturing defects, are now made intentionally to add character to the denim fabric.
    • snow-wash
    • Snow-wash is a laundry process similar to acid-wash. In both washes, where no acid is used despite the name, denim is washed with chlorine and pumice stones. Other products often used in snow-wash are bleach, potassium permanganate, sand and expanded glass foam. Snow washed jeans retain more of the original blue indigo dye rather than "destroyed jeans" where denim had been bleached almost white.
    • spandex
    • Spandex is a generic term for artificial fibres that are able stretch. Its abbreviation is PU.
    • staple
    • In denim production staple refers to a length of fibre that is used to determine the quality of cotton. In general longer staple lengths are considered more valuable.
    • starching
    • Starching is the process wherein starch is applied to a denim fabric in order to make the textile more rigid. Starching guarantees the fabric doesn't fold or move when cutting a pile of numerous layers of denim at a time. Starch is easily visible in raw denim, where it gives the stiffness to the jeans, and tends to disappear after repeated washings.
    • stonewashing
    • Stone washing is the process that physically removes colour and adds contrast, in which pumice stones are added to the wash cycle. Dozens of blue jeans are put in industrial washing machines along with the stones. The jeans and stones are rotated together for a set period of time. The washing time dictates the final colour of the fabric- the longer the denim and stones are rotated, the lighter the colour becomes and more contrast is achieved. Stonewashing process gives the jeans a faded and vintage look. It also slightly roughens up the denim and softens the fabric. At the end of stonewashing process the jeans are rinsed and dried in tumbler.
    • straight leg jeans
    • Sraight leg jeans are those characterized by the same leg width from the knee down to the bottom hem.
    • stretch denim
    • Stretch denim refers to a cotton denim fabric wich incorporates an elastic fibre such as elastane, spandex or polyurethane. When a small percentage of artificial fibres is added (about 2%) the fabric is also called "comfort-denim", while in the case of higher percentages (up to 10%) the name stretch-denim is more appropriate. Spandex is required within the fabric to create a significant stretching capacity that goes from 10 to 30 percent or more. Due to its elasticity, which makes the garment adhere to the body, stretch-denim is highly used to manufacturing skinny jeans for both men and women. However, as elastic fibres have a lower resistance, their use will shorten the wearing life of the jeans.
    • sulphur-dye
    • In most of the cases, manufacturers apply a sulphur-dye (American "sulfur-dye") before the customary indigo dye. Sulphur dyes are easy to apply, have a good wash-fastness and are cheap. Sulphur-bottom is a process in which the yarn is treated with sulphur-dye before the indigo baths. Sulfur dyes are water insoluble and their oxidation is obtained in air, as for the indigo-dye. They are used to obtain the richest colours in a shorter time, which reduce the amount of indigo needed to dye the denim. Sulfur dyes are yellow, blue, black and brown. Yellow colour is used to create a typical 'vintage' cast on indigo blue jeans.
    • synthetic indigo
    • The synthetic indigo is artificially created, as opposed to natural indigo derived from indigofera tinctoria plant. See also "indigo".
    • T
    • tapered jeans
    • Tapered jeans refer to a characteristic model, usually slim fit, which gets narrower toward the bottom leg and to the hem.
    • tate-ochi
    • Tate-ochi is a Japanese term referring to occurrences of 'Iro-ochi', which consists in forming vertical faded lines in denim. As the thread width is not uniform in vintage denim made from slub yarn, the colour fades the most where the thread is thicker. This creates a white or prominent faded thread along a single vertical indigo thread. The tread is generally several centimeters long.
    • textile finishing
    • Textile finishing is any industril process, either chemical or manual, applied to a fabric or garment in order to achieve a certain characteristic, property, hand or look.
    • tobacco stitching
    • Tobacco stitching refers to the colour tint of the stitches mainly used for the production of jeans and other denim garments. The color range goes from orange to dark brown through the tobacco, in fact.
    • top stitch
    • Top stitch is a commonly used straight simple stitch, as a practical and decorative feature.
    • triple needed stitch
    • A triple need stitch guarantees the greatest strength and durability to the seams of the clothing. Triple need stitching is highly used by workwear garments manufacturers.
    • trucker jacket
    • Trucker jacket is the nickname for every slim fit denim jacket with pointed pochet flaps.
    • twill
    • Twill refers to the diagonal lines formed by the weave. It is used to define both the diagonal design and the cloth obtained from that weave construction. Twill weave technique can be applied to several materials such as wool, cotton, linen and silk. The twill is the second armature base, with canvas and satin. It has diagonal pattern, with a forehand and a backhand, a weft and a warp. The plot thus formed gives the fabric certain softness. In fact, fabrics made with this armor are not rigid and they adapt to the movement, even if made of thick yarn or heavy materials. For this feature are suitable for workwear and sportswear clothing. Twill worked with wire cotton indigo blue colour and white plot is known as denim, a fabric used to manufacture blue jeans.
    • U
    • union special
    • Union Special is a sewing machine brand popular among the denim lovers. It was the leading manufacturer of industrial sewing machines in America. The most important commercial machine produced was model 432000G, manufactured in 1940. The 432000G was reputed the best machine designed for hemming chinos, jeans, jackets and other denim and workwear overalls: this model is well known to produce an extra strong and tight chain-stitch that creates a "rope loop" after repeated washes. In 1989 Union specials stopped manufacturing model 432000G and it's now pretty rare.
    • unisex jeans
    • Unisex jeans are those that can be worn by both men and women. See also "boyfriend jeans".
    • unwashed
    • Unwashed denim refers to jeans and jackets that have been left unwashed. Unwashed denim is also known as 'Raw denim" or "Dry denim". In the old days manufacturers sold denim garments dark, stiff and not pre-shrunk. Unwashed jeans and other denim garments are highly appreciated by purists and denim lovers, who want to break in their own jeans on their own bodies, to relive the original magic of denim.
    • used-wash
    • Used wash refers to a type of placed abrasive effect such as manual scratching or sandblasting, creating a three dimensional effect on jeans. Used wash is made individually on every garment in special areas like the knees, pockets, thighs and bottom. Each garment is therefore unique.
    • V
    • veneto
    • Veneto refers to a northern Italian region, reputed center of excellence for the production of denimwear and clothing. (SBU) STRATEGIC BUSINESS UNIT jeans, sportswear and tailored line are all produced in Veneto, along with the footwear and fashion accessories.
    • vintage clothing
    • Vintage is a term referring anything from the past, old or secondhand. Vintage jeans and clothes can either be previously worn or never worn and preserved in their original state. In this second case the garments are said "dead tock".
    • W
    • waist overall
    • Waist overall is the original term for what we know as jeans.
    • warp
    • Warp refers to a carachteristic construction of yarn in which the vertical yarns are woven under and over the weft yarn. Vertical yarns have more twist and are stronger than weft yarns. With regard to the production of denim clothing, warp runs parallel to the selvage and is dyed indigo or black.
    • weave
    • Weave refers to the composition of yarns woven together to produce a fabric. A weave includes both weft and warp yarns. The number of weft yarns that the warp ends pass over determines the warp face designs used in the denim, followed by the number of weft yarns they pass under.
    • weft
    • Weft is a construction of yarn in which the yarn runs horizontally and is passed over and under the warp. Weft yarn is less resistent than a warp yarn, because it has been less twisted. In denim, weft refers to the un-dyed, crosswise yarns used in weave.
    • weight
    • Denim is traditionally graded by its weight per yard of fabric. It is divided in three main groups: lightweight (5-8 oz.), mediumweight (9-12 oz.) and heavyweight (13-14 oz.). Medium and heavy denim is used for jeans and jackets production, while lighter denim is mostly used on shirts, dresses, skirts, hot pants and other garments.
    • wet washes
    • Wet washes refers to several, different processes and industrial techniques that all use liquid, or simply water, in combination with mechanical treatment applied to blue jeans and other denim garments in order to create vintage or modern effects.
    • whiskering
    • Whiskering is the process tha creates horizontal crease lines on the denim garment, after a period of regular wear, which gives the appearance of aged denim. Whiskers can also be inverse- dark creased in faded denim. Whiskers are mostly found around the crotch, knees and thigh of blue jeans. Whiskering can also be artificially obtained in the finishing process of a pair of jeans, with industrial fading processes and techniques such as stonebleaching, stonewashing, sandpapering, sandblasting and lasering.
    • width
    • The width of a denim fabric is strictly related to how it was woven. Selvage denim obtained from shuttle looms is woven to 70 centimeters wide, approximately. Regular denim manufactured with the use of industrial machines is much higher and longer (from 120 to 200 centimeters).
    • woad
    • Woad (isatis tinctoria) is the name of a plant native of Greece and Italy, which was the prevalent blue dye in Europe, while indigo (indigofera tinctoria) was a native of Asia and provided the blue color for the eastern world. Woad is a temperat erbaceous wich produces lance shaped leaves and yellow flowers. Woad can be grown easily in temperate gardens. Woad was the dye that was used in Britain and erly inhabitants used it as a blue body dye during war times. Nowadays, natural indigo and woad are not most preferred fabric dye, because they bleed and fade with age but, mostly, because they ruin the industrial machines with their pigments.
    • worn-in jeans
    • Worn-in jeans have a secondhand and faded appearance, due to the frequent washing and wear or by means of industrial process.
    • worn-out
    • Worn-out is a method of wet processing where blue jeans and other denim garments are stonewashed and sandblasted in order to obtain a worn and vintage look.
    • Y
    • yarn
    • Yarn is a long length of fibres that are spun to obtain a continuous thread.
    • yarn dye
    • Refers to fabric in which the individual yarns are dyed prior to weaving. Denim is a yarn dyed fabric.
    • yoke
    • Yoke is the v-shaped section at the back of jeans, also known as a 'riser', which forms the curve of the seat. The more pronounced the V of the yoke, the greater the curve. Cowboy jeans often present a deep yoke, whereas workwear or dungaree jeans might have a shallower yoke, or no yoke at all.
    • Z
    • zipper
    • The zipper is the mechanism used to close jeans, which consists of a system of small metallic teeth intertwined with a movable clasp. The innovation was considered hazardous in 1900, when it was invented, but eventually became a huge success. Zip fly is the alternative to the button fly.

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