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  • デニム用語集A-G

    • A
    • abrasion
    • Abrasion is the distressed area on a pair of jeans, where the fabric shows results of heavy wear. It is the process of making denim look ruined and used by scraping or rubbing the surface of the fabric. It is very often obtained with use of modern washing techniques with pumice stones or plastic stones used by industrial laundries on pre-washed jeans.
    • acid wash
    • Acid wash is the process obtained by soaking pumice stones in chlorine. Acid wash causes discoloration of the top layer of the jeans producing marked contrast all over the indigo denim. Acid wash is salso known as Marble wash, Moon Wash or Snow Wash. Acid wash was highly used by hard rock groups and heavy metal bands in the eighties.
    • aged
    • Aged is the process that gives the jeans an artificial worn look and a softer feel through repeated washings and targeteded abrasion.
    • anti-fit
    • Anti-fit is a mode of cutting the rise of the jean in a straight line, which, contrarily to what some believe to be the meaning of the term, has nothing to do with the sizing of jeans. Because of this, anti-fit cut jeans doesn't follow the shape of the body. Anti-fit jeans are very comfortable, even though not ergonomic.
    • anti-twist
    • Anti-twist is one of the finishing processes that corrects denim's natural tendency to twist in the direction of the diagonal twill weave. Also known as skewing. Anti-twist is applied before sanforization.
    • arcuate or arcs
    • Arcuate is the istinctive double stitching used on the back pocket of the jeans, shaped like seagull wings, bat wings or bull horns. Arcuate is unique to each vintage denim brand and facilitates its recognition. No other denim brand is allowed to sell jeans with patterns that resemble the arcs.
    • atari
    • Atari is a Japanese term that describes the selective fading alongside the ridges of pleats. The most common areas for 'Atari' are, on the front and back of the knees, along side seams, the upper thigh, on belt loops and along the hem and back pockets.
    • authentic
    • Authenthic is a jeanswear term used to describe both denim fabric qualities and modern washing techniques used by industrial laundries. Among the characteristics of authentic denim are traditional fabric weaves and dyeing methods.
    • B
    • back cinch
    • Back cinch is better known as martingale. It consists of a denim strap and a buckle. The back cinch with a back buckle was used to tighten the waist on jeans before widespread use of belts; hence the terms "buckle back".
    • back pocket flasher
    • Back pocket flasher is a cardboard flap attached to the right back pocket of jeans to indicate qualities and differences in denim fabrics, finishing, washes, shapes, styles and size.
    • bartack
    • Bar tacks are closely spaced stitches, forming a band or a bar that reinforces stress points on jeans- usually around zippers, front flies and pocket openings.
    • bell-bottoms
    • Bell-bottoms models were first spotted with sailors wearing the bell-shaped pants. The name 'bell bottoms' originates in the fact that the legs of these jeans take on the shape of a bell when viewed from the side. Bell-bottom jeans style was tight at the waist and thighs and the trousers flare out from the knee down.
    • belt loops
    • Belt loops are a series of loops aound the waistband of a pair of pants that hold a belt and help to hold the pants up on the person wearing them. A classic pair of jeans usually has 5 belt loops: two in front above the front pockets, two more at each side and one at the back. Some jeans feature double-layered belt loops to add strenght to the construction.
    • big e
    • Big 'E' denotes collector's jeans and denimwear made prior to 1971. Big E jeans and jackets featured a red tab with a lower case 'E' and are much sought after by vintage collectors.
    • black-black denim
    • Special Japanese denim where the warp yarn is black instead of white and which is also dyed black after weaving. Dyeing with indelible natural ink is also a time honoured Japanese method of fabrics' production. It is named sumi-zome from the ash or soot (sumi) used in the dyeing process.
    • bleach
    • Bleach is a chemical used in the process of fading denim. Either sodium hydrochloride or potassium permanganate is used.
    • bleaching
    • Bleaching is the process of applying bleach to yarn or fabric to adjust the colour and to remove natural impuritice from denim.
    • blue jeans
    • Blue jeans is the name that was given to jeans trousers, due to their typical blue colour. The history of jeans started in Genova, Italy, where the harbour workers used a robust fabric dyed blue with indigo. This fabric was known as the Blue from Genova, or in French "Blue de Genes". The English adaptation then became "Blue Jeans".
    • bombazine
    • Bombazine is a fine twilled fabric usually of silk and worsted or cotton, traditionally dyed black and used for mourning clothes. Bombazine was often used for workwear.
    • boot cut
    • Boot cut or bootleg is a jeans style cut wide enough in the leg to accommodate a pair of cowboy boots underneath.
    • boyfriend jeans
    • The boyfriend jeans style refers to an oversized baggy jean. Boyfriend jeans are jeans for women designed to look like men's jeans. The wearer looks like she is wearing her boyfriend's jeans.
    • broken twill
    • Broken twill is a denim fabric often used for workwear garments. The diagonal weave of the twill is intentionally reversed at every two warp ends to form a random zigzag design. This type of weave reduces the natural torque characteristic of regular twill weaves, and has the effect of eliminating leg twist.
    • brushing
    • Brushing is part of the final treatment for a worn out look of denim. Jeans are brushed either using an electrical brush or by hand by skilled craftsman.
    • bull denim
    • Bull denim is heavyweight denim weave with a typical 3x1 twill construction. An ecru fabric, bull denim is later coloured. Bull denim is hardwearing and strong, takes dye well with exceptional results. Bull denim is much softer than canvas but equally resistant.
    • button
    • Buttons are round fasteners, which secure two pieces of fabric together. The size of the button depends on its use. Buttons are composed of two parts: a short nail that is attached to the fabric and the head, the visible part. Even though buttons have been manufactured from different materials, both natural and synthetic, buttons used in denim clothing are made of a metal alloy such as copper, brass and aluminium.
    • capital e
    • Capital 'E', also known as big 'E', denotes collector's item from the LS&CO made prior to 1971. Capital E jeans and jackets featured a red tab with a lower case 'E' and are much sought afrter by vintage collectors.
    • C
    • capri jeans
    • Capri jeans are pants that end around mid-calf or just below the calf. Altough Capri jeans can be unisex they are mostly worn by women.
    • carrot fit jeans
    • Carrot fit jeans is a descriptive term for a loose fitted style of jeans. Carrot fit jeans are cutted wide at the top and narrow towards the bottom. Carrot fit jeans are also known as peg jeans. Because the silhouette sits low on the hips and is cut loose, carrot fit jeans suits well on both curvy and straight bodies.
    • caste or cast
    • Caste describes the shading or tone of denim. Caste is often added by way of an additional dyeing process.
    • cellulose enzyme-wash
    • In cellulose enzyme-washing process, a particular washing method to give jeans a worn out look, enzymes are used to physically eat away the cellulose in cotton. Due to the fact that the pigment in denim fabric is actually on the outside of the yard, when the denim is washed in a cellulose enzyme bath the deep blue colour is removed along with the fiber. When the desired shade has been achieved, either changing the alkalinity of the bath or heating the water stops the enzymes from reacting. A rinsing and softening cycle has to follow. Cellulose enzyme-wash process is more environmentally friendly than stone washing or stone bleaching.
    • chain stitching
    • Chain stitching is used in embroidery and sewing garments. It is the 'authentic' stich used to hem vintage jeans. Chain stitching consists of a series of looped stitches that form a chain-like pattern, using one continuous thread that loops back on it. Chain stitching pulls the denim at slightly different tensions on either side, causing the distinctive 'roping' that really shows the beauty of vintage denim.
    • chambray
    • Chambray is a plain-woven cotton fabric having medium weight. Mostly used for making shirts, chambray is usually made from blue and white yarns, often in checkered or striped patterns. Due to its softness chambray is also used for workmen's garments, in a heavier version.
    • chino
    • Chino cloth is a twill fabric made of cotton, developed for military uniforms. Chino fabric is made to be simple, hardwearing and comfortable for people to wear. The fabric is considered to be a 'chino' if the fabric is a tightly woven two-ply right hand 3x1 combed cotton twill. The pure cotton fabric is widly used for trousers, called 'chinos'. Chinos are made in many colours other than traditional khaki.
    • cigarette jeans
    • See also 'slim fit" jeans.
    • coin-pocket
    • The coin-pocket is the fifth pocket of the jeans, also known as watch pocket. The coin pocket sits inside the right front pocket and motivates the term five-pocket jeans.
    • colourfast
    • Colourfast indicates the level of attachment of dye to the fabric. If denim fabric is colourfast its colour will not lose brightness nor will change when it is washed or exposed to sunlight.
    • combed yarn
    • Combed yarn is a yarn that has undergone the combing process; therefore all the fibres are parallel. Due to the time-intensive combing process, combed yarn is more expensive than carded yarn. Combed yarn process produces a softer, more resistent and compact yarn.
    • core spun yarn
    • Core spun, also known as 'polycore', is a yarn in which a base yarn is entirely wrapped by a second yarn. It is obtained by twisting staple fibers around a central filament core. Core spun yarn is much stronger than traditional spun yarn.
    • cotton
    • Cotton is a vegetable soft and fluffy fibre collected from the cotton plant. Cotton has been spun, woven and dyed since the fifth millennium B.C. Succesful cultivation of cotton requires along frost-free period, plenty of sunshine and a moderate rainfall. Cotton is a high versatile material, used to make a number of textile products, including denim for blue jeans. The longer are the fibres the more valuable the fabric. 'Upland" cotton is the most widly grown. 'Pima' cotton was cultivated in Aizona by the Pima Indians and it's one of the most expensive varieties available, used for manufacturing luxury denim. Turkish cotton is known for its strenght and sheen. Zimbabwean cotton is harvested by hand in Africa and is one of the most rare in the world.
    • crocking
    • 'Crocking' occurs when excess dye rubs off one dry fabric onto another dry fabric. While 'Bleeding' occurs when dyes transfer from one wet fabric to another wet fabric.
    • crosshatch
    • Cosshatch is a unique and rare type of denim that is created by mixing uneven yarns in both the weft and warp directions. Crosshatch causes the denim to display irregular wear patterns that highlight the grain in the jeans.
    • D
    • denim
    • Denim is a robust cotton twill fabric characterised by a 3x1 warp-faced weave in which the weft passes under two or more warp threads. In blue denim only the warp threads are dyed with indigo, while the weft threads are kept their natural colour. Because of this reason jeans are blue on the outside and white on the inside. The peculiar diagonal manufacture of denim fabric is evident on the reverse of the cloth. Authentic denim was dyed blue with natural and pure indigo, obtained from the plant Indigofera tinctoria. The yarn is immersing repeatedly in the compound for dyeing: the more dips the deeper the blue colour of the indigo. The etymology of "denim" derives from the french 'serge de Nimes', with reference to the city of Nimes in northern France, where the fabric used to be shipped shipped.
    • denim density
    • The density of denim is given by the quantity of threads that compose the plot. The density of denim determines compactness of the fabric and can classified as follows: low density, medium density, high density and super high density.
    • denim head
    • Denim head is a term that describes denim fans.
    • desizing
    • Desizing is the process of taking away the sizing stuff from the warp yarns of the denim fabric. Enzymes are often used within this operation. Enzymes are living organism that styke the cornstarch in a rinse that softens denim fabric.
    • destroyed finish
    • Astutely ripped jeans, mostly by mechanical grinder used by skilled craftmen. Slashed jeans started to be popular among punks during the 1970s and have remained part of the denim culture until today.
    • dip-dyes
    • The process of dipping cotton threads into vegetable dyes. The yarn is dipped in the indigo or Japanese ink vat from four to twenty times. The more the thread is dipped in the more intense, brighter and deeper the blue or black colour.
    • dirty denim
    • In order to obtain "dirty denim" additional colour is applied to the denim fabric or jeans to create a different shade or tint. 'Dirty Denim' is often poduced by applying a yellow overdye to denim or jeans; this tincture is obtained through the use of chemical components of the sulphur (sulphur dye).
    • distressed jeans
    • Similarely to the "destroyed jeans", the distressed jeans underwent a highly abrasive process and therefore presents strain and tears artificially created. Distressed process is used to give the jeans a second-hand or vintage look.
    • double-stitched seam
    • Double stitching produces parallel seams that makes denim and workwear garments more durable and strong. Double stitched seams also prevent the denim fabric from raveling. The jeans are double stitched around the pockets and from the crotch to the bottom of the leg.
    • doughnut button
    • Doughnout buttons present a hole in the middle of the button, resebling a donut design. Doughnut buttons made of steel and copper were largely used for vintage jeans and military garments productions.
    • drill
    • Drilli s a very robust and versatile cotton fabric, easily recognizable by a marked diagonal weaves. Due to its durability drill is widely used for making military uniforms, workwear and hunting garments. Drill has become popular in casual wear for khaki pants.
    • dry-cleaning
    • Dry-cleaning is any cleaning process for clothing using a chemical product other than water. The solvent is used to clean delicate garments that cannot endure the stress of a washing machine and a dryer.
    • dry-denim
    • Unwashed denim is also called "dry-denim" or "raw denim". Dry/Raw jeans and jackets are rigid and stiff and present a plain deep blue indigo colour, often with a shine.
    • dual ring-spun
    • In the ring-spun process the yarn is made by incessantly twisting and making the threads thinner, obtaining a very subtile string of cotton fibres. In the dual ring spun process, both the weft and the warp are made of ring spun yarn. The twisting produces a more resistent yarn with a considerable softer hand. Dual ring spun denim is salso known as "ring-ring" denim fabric. Dual ring spun denim is more expensive than both singular ring spun and open-end denim fabrics.
    • duck canvas
    • Duck canvas, also known as cotton duck or simply duck is a weighty flat woven cotton fabric. The threads of the duck canvas are more closely woven than in normal canvas. Duck canvas is a strong, versatile fabric used in multiple products, from clothing to shoes and fashion accessories. Duck cloth is woven with two yarns jointly in the warp and one in the weft.
    • dungarees
    • Dungaree fabric is a rough, compact twill cotton cloth, mostly coloured blue. Because of its resistance dungaree fabric is often used for hardwearing work pants made from such tissue. Dungaree is often defined "blue denim" and is used to make strong jeans.
    • dyeing
    • Dyeing is the process of adding color to textile products. Two main categories of dye exist: natural and artificial.
    • E
    • eco-denim
    • Eco-denim refers to the denim fabric obtained from ecological cotton and environmental friendly dyeing techniques. Ecological jeans are those made with eco-denim fabric.
    • ecru
    • Ecru is the natural colour of undyed cotton jeans and denim fabric.
    • elastane
    • Elastane is a man-made, elastic fiber able to resume its normal shape spontaneously after dilatation. Elastane is largely used to produce stretch-denim fabrics. In fact, the demand for stretch-denim jeans has grown enormously in recent years. See also stretch-denim.
    • enzyme wash
    • Enzymes are living organisms. Enzymes are used to trigger the chemical process that fade the blue colour of natural indigo, rather than using pumice stones. Because of this reason, enzyme wash is reputed a more efficient and environmentally friendly way to stone wash denim garments. Jeans and denim jackets washed using enzymes are stronger than those subjected to stone washing, as the garment doesn't undergo to the same level of misuse.
    • F
    • fabric weight
    • Fabric weight expresses the areal density of a textile fabric. Fabric weight refers to the weight in ounces of a given amount of a fabric. Denim fabrics weight varies from 5 to 15 ounces per square yard.
    • finishing
    • In denim manufacturing, finishing refers to a large variety of industrial processes that modify the surface of a garment to reach a determined characteristic in appearence. Stone washing, stone bleaching and enzyme washing are artificial operations that age jeans and denim jackets with different effects. In textile manufacturing, finishing refers to a broad range of processes that ameliorate the aspect, the softness or the performance of the finished fabric.
    • fit
    • Fit characterize and define the form, figure and cut of any fashion garment. In denim wear, jeans are produced with different design such as regular fit, tight fit, skinny fit, loose fit, straight fit, to meet various requests and body shapes.
    • five pocket jeans
    • Five pocket jeans are so called because of the number of pockets on each pant. At present, most common jeans have two front pockets, two back pockets and a coin pocket situated inside the right front pocket. Classic five pocket pants constitute the most widespread example of jeans around the world.
    • flare jeans
    • Flare jeans refers to a model of low waist pants that widen from the knees downward. Flare jeans are also named bell-bottoms, or simply flares. Those trousers were used by sailors at first and became permanent in fashion after being part of the hippie counter-culture phenomenon.
    • french cut
    • French cut refers to a super tight fit of jeans, mostly for women. French cut is also known as 'skinny' jeans. Because of its adherence to the body it's made of stretch-denim.
    • frosted denim
    • Frosted denim is a poular washing method that ows its name to a species of violet having a very pale colour.
    • G
    • garment dye
    • Garment dye is a particular method of dyeing used to give colour to ready-made garments previously retained in ecru or in neutral colour. Garment dyeing is an extremely convenient and functional way of dyeing. "Ready to dye" garments present a vintage patina and are often stonewashed to create a "second hand", worn look. Because of the type of dyeing, garment-dye clothes are pre-shrunk and they will not shrink after washing.
    • good middling
    • Good middling is a wolly cotton wich contains minimal or no trace of impurity and is nearly white. Because of this peculiar characteristic, good middling is reputed a parameter to estimate all other gradation of cotton, In fact, good middling represents the standard measure adopted from cotton manufacturers and it is considered the highest quality of cotton available on the market. Best denim fabrics are produced through the use of good middling.
    • green-cast
    • Green-cast refers to a dyeing process in wich the yarn is dyed with green-yellow suphur mordant before natural indigo is combined with it. Green-cast denim fabrics are widely used for the production of heavily washed jeans so that the deep blue indigo colour fades and the green-yellow beneath is progressively revealed.
    • grey-cast
    • Grey-cast refers to a dyeing process in wich the yarn is dyed with grey suphur mordant before pure indigo is combined with it. Grey-cast denim fabrics are widely used for the production of raw denim jeans.

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